DataTemplates
As styles aren't stored in Resources, neither are DataTemplates. Instead, DataTemplates are placed in a DataTemplates collection on each control (and on Application):
<UserControl xmlns:viewmodels="clr-namespace:MyApp.ViewModels;assembly=MyApp">
<UserControl.DataTemplates>
<DataTemplate DataType="viewmodels:FooViewModel">
<Border Background="Red" CornerRadius="8">
<TextBox Text="{Binding Name}"/>
</Border>
</DataTemplate>
</UserControl.DataTemplates>
<!-- Assuming that DataContext.Foo is an object of type
MyApp.ViewModels.FooViewModel then a red border with a corner
radius of 8 containing a TextBox will be displayed here -->
<ContentControl Content="{Binding Foo}"/>
<UserControl>
Data templates in Avalonia can also target interfaces and derived classes (which cannot be done in WPF) and so the order of DataTemplates can be important: DataTemplates within the same collection are evaluated in declaration order so you need to place them from most-specific to least-specific as you would in code.

DataTemplateSelector

In WPF you can create a DataTemplateSelector to select or create a DataTemplate based on the provided data. In Avalonia you cannot do this, but you can implement IDataTemplate which can be seen as a good replacement for the DataTemplateSelector. Please find a sample here.
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